Health Sciences Journal <p style="text-align: justify;">Health Sciences Journal is an open access journal of Management Development &amp; Research Innovation (MDRI) under terms of Creative common attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License. It is published bi-annually, blind peer review. Original and review articles are published in this journal which are in line with aims and scope of HSJ. <strong><em> </em></strong> HSJ covers all areas of health and medical sciences from basic, applied to clinical and experimental work. Areas included are medicine, dentistry and applied medical sciences, public health, pharmaceutical, health economics, health informatics, and bioinformatics, contributed to medical knowledge. Manuscripts may add new method of experiments, importance and significance of medical, clinical issues and epidemiological work of significant scientific implication. All authors must ensure while submitting paper to HSJ that “Recommendation for the conduct editing, reporting and publication of scholarly work in Medical journal” as described by (<a href=""></a>). In processing and publication of research work, the Journal currently follows the Higher Education Commision (HEC) criteria.</p> en-US Mon, 10 Jun 2024 17:48:18 +0000 OJS 60 IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND HEALTH CARE FACTORS ON THE SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF TRANSGENDER COMMUNITY IN PAKISTAN <p>Background: The present study is conducted in Pakistan and investigates the social exclusion of transgender people in different spheres of life. <br />Material &amp; Methods: The study was conducted on urban population of Islamabad. The sample consists of 150 transgender and collected through snowball sampling. Regression and correlation analysis was undertaken to find out the relationship independent and dependent variables and to find out <br />the effect of social exclusion in different spheres of life. Findings/Results: The results show a positive and insignificant relationship between transphobia and social exclusion but also reveal negative and significant relationship between education, income, health care services and social exclusion. Government should make policies on the provisions of rights to the transgender people. Education programs must be prepared so these people are not left out of educational environment. Social justice must be provided to made them better people so they can effectively participate and interact in the society.</p> Sidra Riaz Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SEROPREVALENCE OF H5, H7, and H9 INFLUENZA VIRUSES IN BROILERS PREVAILING IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN <p><strong>Background:</strong> Avian influenza poses a significant risk to communities as it impacts birds and results in a high mortality rate and global economic losses of up to 89%. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of the H5, H7 and H9 strain of AIV between the years2017 to 2020 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. <br /><strong>Methods:</strong> 650 blood samples from broiler birds were collected from five (Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Abbottabad, Mansehra, and Peshawar) different ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Initial screening was done using the HA and HI tests. H9 samples were further confirmed using PCR. <br />Results: Overall seroprevalence of avian influenza virus subtypes H5, H7, and H9 was 22.43%, 5.384%, and 25.23%, respectively. Maximum seroprevalence was reported in DIK district, followed by Abbottabad, Peshawar, Mansehra, and Tank. A phylogenic study of H9 samples depicted H9 strains clustering closer to previously reported Pakistan-originated strains. Overall, the AIV H9N2 strain <br />under study showed 10-12% genomic distance to strains of B1 sub lineages reported from Pakistan, India, and Iran. Similarly, a 12.9 17% genomic distance was observed between viruses of the <br />G1_Mideast_Group A lineage, followed by 19–22.5% between viruses of the Y9280-like lineage and 24-28% between viruses of the Y439/97-like lineage. <br />Conclusion: The current research region had an epidemic of avian influenza. Therefore, it is crucial to isolate infected birds in order to prevent and control the further spread of the disease.</p> Ali Zaman, Abdul Haleem Shah, Shakeeb Ullah, Adnan Amin, Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Muhammad Inamullah Malik , Muhammad Kamal Shah, Sadaf Javaria , Ayesha Haleem Shah, Rahat Ullah Khan, Saifur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF AQUEOUS HERBAL EXTRACTS, PROBIOTICS AND SIGANUS LURIDUS (UNANI DRUG) ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND RENAL FUNCTIONS OF BROILER CHICKS <p><strong>Aim/Purpose:</strong> The aim of this research was to assess the influence of water-based herbal infusions, beneficial bacteria, and SIGANUS LURIDUS on indicators of liver and kidney function in broiler <br />chickens. <br /><strong>Methods:</strong> We organized 105-day-old broiler chicks into seven equal groupings, labeled A through G. Each of the initial six groups received a unique water-based herbal infusion alongside their fundamental diet. Aloe vera, Ginger, Siganus luridus, Garlic, Probiotic (Dahi), and Turmeric were given to Groups A through F, correspondingly. Group G served as a control group and was only provided with the basic diet. Every group, comprised of fifteen chicks subdivided into three sets of five, was given their specific herbal infusion (0.2%) two times daily from the 11th day till the conclusion of the study on the 39th day. Serum samples were gathered on the 18th, 25th, 32nd, and 39th days. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that ginger (Zingiber officinale) considerably influenced the normalization of urea levels compared to other herbs, signifying that ginger (Zingiber officinale) <br />significantly enhanced kidney function. The Feed conversion ratio was also significantly different for chicks consuming ginger (Zingiber officinale) compared to other groups. The effect of other herbal infusions and probiotics on the serum level of urea in broiler chicks was not significant. Summarizing, the results of this study exhibit a significant relationship between the use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and improved kidney and liver functions</p> Kamran Safdar, Rubina Naz , Shakeeb Ullah , Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Adamu Abdul Abubakar , Atabo Shaibu Mohammed, Sadaf Javaria, Sumera Ali, Naveed Alam, Farheen Bhatti, Arzo Kanwal, Saifur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DETECTION OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS IN LOCALLY AVAILABLE OPEN MILK SAMPLES IN DEAR ISMAIL KHAN, PAKISTAN <p><strong>Background:</strong> Milk is very nutrient-dense. However, milk is readily contaminated during production, processing, and storage, endangering the health of users. The identification of dangerous chemicals in milk is crucial. The present study aimed to highlight the problem of milk pollution by observing milk samples at district Dera Ismail Khan. <br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> To achieve the objective, a total of 60 milk samples were gathered by stratifying the district into two distinct geographical distributions: within the city and beyond the city boundaries, based on population density. Different analytical techniques were used for the quick detection of dangerous chemicals or the targeted verification of milk validity. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> According to quantitative data, the average levels of fat, lactose, added water, temperature, freezing point, pH, and conductivity of the milk are statistically the same (p &gt; 0.05). However, the average content of SNF, density, salts, and protein are statistically different (p &lt;0.05). The qualitative findings revealed the presence of sodium chloride and sorbitol in minimal quantities, while a majority of the samples exhibited adulteration with formalin. <br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study's findings led to the conclusion that milk sold both within and outside of the region of D.I. Khan had been adulterated with sodium chloride, sorbitol, and formalin to produce <br />distinctive hues. Control and elimination of this problem may require the application of efficient preventative measures and mitigating strategies.</p> Ayesha Aslam , Rubina Naz, Shakeeb Ullah , Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Sadaf Javaria, Saifur Rehman, Atabo Shaibu Mohammed, Aisha Siddiqua, Muhammad Inamullah Malik, Ahmad Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIRADICAL CAPACITIES OF DIVERSE EXTRACTS OF OLEA EUROPAEA L. LEAVES FROM PAKISTAN <p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been an increase in interest in studies for the extraction of biologically active compounds from natural sources during the past decade. The Oleaeuropaea L. tree, occasionally referred to as the olive, is one of the members of the Oleaceae family and is very significant historically and economically, particularly in Mediterranean countries. Olive leaves <br />have a lofty phenolic compound, which offer them antioxidant properties and a decreased risk of illness. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive compounds (polyphenol, <br />flavonoids) and antioxidant activities of the different olive leaves extracts.</p> <p><strong> Methods:</strong> The percentage yield of various extract of olive leaves was measured and the polyphenols was determined by Folin Ciocalteu reagent while the bioactive compounds flavonoids was estimated by using aluminum chloride method. The antioxidant activities of various extract of olive leaves were measured by DPPH and reducing power assay. Results: In this study the olive leaves extracts' maximum recovery yield (32.70%) of was found in <br />methanol extracts and the total phenol concentrations varied from 3.64±0.11–135.70±8.2 (mg GAE/g) and flavonoids 1.20±0.07 26.35±1.20 (mg QE/g). Our results revealed that methanolic extract shown outstanding % Inhibition (DPPH) and reducing power activity. The capacity to lower the DPPH was in this order: methanol &gt; water: methanol&gt;water&gt;chloroform &gt; hexane extract at the same concentration. Similarly, methanolic extract, showed higher reducing power activity with absorbance which increases from 0.5701 to 1.0204 at concentration 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. <br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This concluded that the olive leaves were a potent source of bioactive compounds and its ability to scavenge free radicals and its reducing power is largely attributed to their <br />phenolic compounds. However, more in-depth research is needed to identify the active compounds in these extracts that are responsible for these effects.</p> Muhammad Khalid Saeed, Sadaf Javaria, Shakeeb Ullah , Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Ali Zaman, Khalid Muhammad, Saqib Ali Rustam, Hamza Maris, Sana Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Saifur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF FOOD ADULTERATION ON HUMAN HEALTH: A PROPOSED SURVEY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food adulteration is the process in which the quality of food is lowered either by the addition of inferior quality material or by extraction of valuable ingredient. This study is centered to the food adulteration, particularly in the dairy products. <br /><strong>Objective</strong>: The main objective of the study is to assess the perception of respondents regarding the Food Adulteration and its effects on human health. <br /><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: This study will be based on exploratory and descriptive research design, wherein both secondary and the primary data will be used. The secondary data will be collected <br />from the existing literature, whereas the primary data will be collected from 365 respondents (estimated from pilot study) from higher education institutions of Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber <br />Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, by using the convenience sampling technique. Moreover, the researcher has developed an adapted questionnaire for the collection of primary data. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: This data will be analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Similarly, the conclusion will be drawn from the findings of the study and will be compared with the results of previous studies for positioning and finding the results-gaps, if any. Last, but not the least, the researcher will give recommendations which may be helpful in understanding and <br />resolution of the issue in question.</p> Muhammad Siddique, Malik Muhammad Hashim, Afia Saadat Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) STUDY OF FOOD SAFETY AND HYGIENE PRACTICES OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMERS <p><strong>Background</strong>: The developed states of the world make huge investments in food safety and hygiene to prevent food-related illnesses, enhancing public health and reducing healthcare costs. However, the developing and poorer states often lack the resources to match these efforts. Studies have shown that food borne illnesses can have severe impacts on a country’s economy, trade, and tourism, and can even result in litigation. Most efforts in food <br />safety focus on the macro level, encompassing raw materials, industrial production, distribution, and retail. However, there is a gap in research and action at the micro level, particularly regarding consumer practices. Domestic food handlers often lack sufficient knowledge about food safety, handle food poorly, and store it inefficiently, leading to vulnerability to food borne illnesses. These practices, posing significant health risks. handlers often rely on trial-and-error methods and traditional <br /><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: This study specifically examines the consumers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of food safety and Hygiene, particularly at household level. This focus is crucial as it addresses the need for improving food safety knowledge and practices at the consumer level to prevent health threats. By exploring the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Food Safety <br />and Hygiene, the study aims to identify gaps and suggest targeted interventions that can enhance food safety at the domestic level.</p> Afia Saadat, Muhammad Siddique, Malik Muhammad Hashim Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ON ORAL HEALTH AMONG THE PATIENTS ATTENDING THE DENTAL OPD AT UPHC IN THE SOUTH-WEST DISTRICT, DELHI <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral health is critical for a person's overall health. Dental caries and periodontists are frequently linked to a variety ofsystemic disorders. Good oral health practices are the key to <br /> preventing oral cavity diseases. Oral health is still a burden in developing nations such as India, and its prevalence is affected by a variety of factors such as geographical region, availability, and <br />accessibility of oral health treatments. The primary etiological risk factors for oral health include genetic predisposition, developmental issues, inadequate oral hygiene, and traumatic incidents. Poor living conditions, limited education, traditions, beliefs, and practices in helping to maintain oral health include all sociocultural determinants. Lack of knowledge and following incorrect practices related to oral health are very important factors resulting in poor oral hygiene. <strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of the study is to assess the oral health KAPs related to Dental caries of patient attending the Dental OPD at UPHC Munirka.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a <br />questionnaire that assessed KAPs of patient attending dental OPD, aged 18-60 years’ during 2023 among 140 patients visiting the outpatient department of dentistry. Results: The overall knowledge attitude and practices are good and 9.3% of participants having poor practices. Out of 140 patients, 85.0% were visited the dentist when they have dental pain. Around 69.3% participants were reported practice of brushing their teeth twice in a day and about <br />46.4% of participants know the exact purpose of brushing. The study also found a correlation between educational status and oro dental hygiene practices. Conclusions: Among the participants 83.6% were aware of the adverse outcomes of fizzy soft drinks and 97 percent had the knowledge on the causes of oral cancer. Those who have good knowledge on oral health were doing good practices for oral hygiene. Therefore, promoting community-based programs <br />at periodic intervals for better oral health and hygiene should be <br />conducted.</p> Umang Shree, Sherin Raj TP, Kiran Rangari Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL AMONG HEALTHCARE ACADEMICIANS <p><strong>Background</strong>: Organizational justice (OJ), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and psychological capital (PsyCap) are all important constructs that have been shown to have a positive impact on employee well-being, performance, and organizational <br />effectiveness. <br /><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study investigated the relationship between these three constructs among healthcare academicians in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. <br /><strong>Material &amp; Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from 400 academicians. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and mediation analysis. <br />Results: The results showed that OJ was positively correlated with PsyCap, and OCB partially mediated the relationship between OJ and PsyCap. This means that OJ and OCB are both important factors in the development of PsyCap healthcare academicians. Organizations can promote PsyCap among their academicians by creating a just work environment and encouraging OCB. Studying has some limitations. The sample size was relatively small, and the <br />study was conducted in a single location. Future research should replicate the study with a larger sample and in different settings. <br /><strong>Limitations &amp; Implications</strong>: Despite these limitations, the study provides valuable insights into the relationship between OJ, OCB, and PsyCap. The findings of the study can be used by organizations to promote PsyCap among their employees.</p> Inayat Ullah , Muhammad Siddique Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATING SYSTEMS IN HEALTHCARE: EXPLOITATION IMPLICATIONS TECHNIQUES AND SECURITY <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This research highlights the importance of vulnerability assessment and techniques for exploiting the Windows operating system (OS) in health care. Utilizing CVE data and other <br />vulnerability reports plays a crucial role in evaluating healthcare's operating system security posture. Security tools such as Metasploit, msfvenom, Nessus, and Nmap were required to conduct vulnerability assessments and intrusion experiments in a simulated environment. <strong>Material &amp; Methods</strong>: The research followed a typical ethical hacking procedure, including reconnaissance, network scanning, vulnerability assessment, exploit creation, and gaining access to the latest version of the Windows OS. Despite installing the latest version of Windows, complete protection against attacks is not guaranteed. <br /><strong>Future Research Directions</strong>: Further research is necessary to assess the system's vulnerabilities and recommend improved solutions thoroughly.</p> Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi , Shakeel Ahmed, Asim Mehmood, Reema Shaheen, Muhammad Shahid Dildar Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000