Health Sciences Journal <p style="text-align: justify;">Health Sciences Journal is an open access journal of Management Development &amp; Research Innovation (MDRI) under terms of Creative common attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License. It is published bi-annually, blind peer review. Original and review articles are published in this journal which are in line with aims and scope of HSJ. <strong><em> </em></strong> HSJ covers all areas of health and medical sciences from basic, applied to clinical and experimental work. Areas included are medicine, dentistry and applied medical sciences, public health, pharmaceutical, health economics, health informatics, and bioinformatics, contributed to medical knowledge. Manuscripts may add new method of experiments, importance and significance of medical, clinical issues and epidemiological work of significant scientific implication. All authors must ensure while submitting paper to HSJ that “Recommendation for the conduct editing, reporting and publication of scholarly work in Medical journal” as described by (<a href=""></a>). In processing and publication of research work, the Journal currently follows the Higher Education Commision (HEC) criteria.</p> Management Development and Research Innovation en-US Health Sciences Journal 2959-2240 ENHANCING COST ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE: A CASE-MIX VS TRADITIONAL COSTING APPROACH <p>Background: Healthcare systems strive to provide high-quality services while optimizing resource utilization and cost-effectiveness. Achieving these goals necessitates using scientific tools or methodologies to assess costs before implementing cost-reduction measures. Diagnosis related group DRGs) which is also called case-mix is a costing method in health. This study focused on a secondary hospital located in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Our goal was to conduct a patient-level healthcare service cost analysis using the Case-mix system. The purpose of this current study was to identify the cost of DRG for each inpatient and compare it with previous price of services of inpatients. Materials &amp; Methods: To achieve this, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis, classifying healthcare service costs they incurred throughout the year 2018 for inpatients diagnosis and methods. Results: Our findings revealed a notable disparity between DRG-based costing, amounting to SAR 138,147,926, and the average costing, which stood at SAR 118,799,359. The DRG-based costing method demonstrated excellent reliability and better representation of patient services. As a result, we recommend its use for reimbursement purposes.</p> Asim Mehmood Shakeel Ahmed Sohail Akhtar Muhammad Toseef Zafar Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 1 1 7 10.59365/hsj.2(1).2023.52 AN OVERVIEW OF TISSUE CRYOPRESERVATION'S CONTRIBUTION TO ORGAN CRYOBIOLOGY <p>Background: Scientists and physicians have long faced challenges in their quest to identify the most effective methods for cryopreservation of living tissues and organs. While cryopreservation techniques have been used since the 1800s, they are still used for tissue preservation for a comparatively limited time. More advancements in biotechnology for tissue and organ preservation have been made possible by the availability of commercially available liquefied gases. Typical issues such as sub-zero or cell damage and re-crystallization, which ultimately results in tissue loss, impede the usefulness of cryopreservation in the field of medical sciences. However, modern cryobiology advances have provided many alternatives for chilling tissues, organs, gametes, and embryos. As tissue sensitivity to ice is more understood, safer freezing methods are used. Methods: This review discusses how tissue cryopreservation advances biotechnology. The effective banking and transplanting of living tissues and organs using cryopreservation will be a crucial and noteworthy development in the fields of biotechnology and medicine in the future. One of the most crucial elements that will enable future cryobiologists and biotechnology researchers to make enormous strides is the preservation and storage of living tissues from the point of donor removal through transfer and transplantation. Future cryobiologists will find this ancient tale fascinating as it unfolds, thanks to the discovery of anti-freezing proteins and peptides in cryopreservation's active zones.</p> Muhammad Shoaib khan Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman Adamu Abdul Abubakar Shakeeb Ullah Humaira A. Khan Farheen Bhatti Nayab Batool Rizvi Sadaf Shakoor Muhammad Inamullah Malik Loqman Mohammad Yusof Saifur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 1 8 15 10.59365/hsj.2(1).2023.54 SCIENCE MAPPING OF HEALTH SECTOR KICKBACKS: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS <p>Background: Health kickbacks is the central part of the this study to report corruption in the areas of infrastructural projects, purchase of drugs and medical equipment, supply of services, job transfer or promotion and natural disaster management. Because it is now a widely accepted reality that corruption occurs whenever there is government engagement in the sectors, the supply of public services or goods may be negatively impacted as a result of corruption. This has the potential to have devastating effects in a variety of spheres, including the social, political, economic, and administrative spheres in health sector. Material and Methods: This research is under the shed of bibliometric analysis of the publications on corruption in health by taking the temporal development using the dimension database connecting 2014-23 publications. Science Mapping is a type of bibliometric study used by co-citation analysis to show the intellectual and bibliometric structure of a study area in this research. The study investigation contained more than 6000 of the publications by the keywords, journals and topic of analysis. Science mapping is the part of bibliometric analysis technique is used by the researcher by implementing citation analysis and co-citation analysis to acknowledge influential publications by the clustering the visuals on corruption in health studies. Findings: The findings indicated intellectual structure was the prolific contributor in terms of cited references, Health policy and planning journal in terms of source, Hutchinson 2018 as citation network document. Previous literature revealed foundation corruption base of governance, financial, operation, competitive management in health related practices being reported by the global studies. The study added to the body of knowledge.</p> Muhammad Toseef Abdul Salam Lodhi Adnan Nazir Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 1 16 22 10.59365/hsj.2(1).2023.56 PREVALENCE OF UROLITHIASIS TYPES AND FACTORS OF STONE FORMATION AMONG LOCAL RESIDENTS OF SOUTH WAZIRISTAN <p>Background: Kidney stone disease (KSD), a widespread public health issue around the globe, is caused by the confluence of demography, contact with the environment, eating choices, and hereditary factors. Aims: The current study examined the prevalence of urolithiasis types and factors of stone formation among residents of Waziristan since a rising water consumption (&gt;3 l everyday) is frequently advised by doctors to avoid kidney disease. Methods: From 110 renal stone individuals ages 18 to 55. There were 25 women and 85 men in Waziristan, and data on a household residence, daily water intake, and origin of water supply were gathered. Drinking water samples were taken twice a year from the case (high stone frequency) and control (zero stone epidemiologic) locations using the correct techniques. Potential of hydrogen (pH), acidity, total dissolved solutes (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and salinity were all measured in the samples collected. To see if there had been any statistically meaningful variations among the case and control regions, mean estimates of the examined variables were evaluated. Findings: 53.6% of the patients, we found, drank less than 3 L of water each day. Testing of samples from drinking water reveals calcium oxalate (CaOx) (94%) and struvite (3%), as well as 3% uric acid (UA). TDS levels were around 650 ppm. It was determined that every water sample was fit for human drinking. According to the findings, urolithiasis is quite prevalent in Waziristan and has a wide range of risk variables. Conclusions: The most important factor in the development of KSD is the purity of the water, not the quantity drank. Stone formation is influenced by genetic factors as well as higher overall solute concentrations. Supporting and advancing awareness initiatives that focus on the key urolithiasis risk variables is crucial.</p> Behzad Kaleem Baloch Jibran Bin Aziz Nayab Memon Sabah Kaleem Baloch Abdullah Nofal Zahid Ahmed Ahmad Humbal Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 1 23 29 10.59365/hsj.2(1).2023.55 PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS <p>Background: Cognitive impairment is defined as a deficit in at least two aspects of cognitive function. The important aspects of cognition are attention, memory, language, visuo-spatial skills, and frontal/executive functions. Different pattern of cognitive impairment are seen in patients with CKD not on hemodialysis and those on hemodialysis. This study was conducted to know the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Methods: This was a cross sectional study and was conducted at hemodialysis unit of Shifa International Hospitals, Islamabad. The study was performed over a period of six months and 250 hemodialysis patients were recruited through consecutive non probability sampling technique and were looked for cognitive impairment by using minimental state examination questionnaire translated in Urdu. Results: Out of 250 patients, mean age was 49 + 8.4 years. 92 (37%) were females and 158 (63%) were male patients. Education level of 133 (53%) patients were up to secondary school, 99 (40%) patients were higher secondary and 18 (7%) patients were masters. 43(17%) of patients were on hemodialysis for 4-6 months, 95(38%) of patients for 7-12 months, 78(31%) of patients for 13-24 months and 34(13%) of patients for&gt; 24 months. The minimum MMSE score of patients were minimum of 26 and maximum of 30 with mean score of 28.5+0.811. Out of 250, 230(92%) patients had cognitive impairment. Mean scores in different MMSE domains like for orientation score was 9.5+0.497, for registration 2.9 +0.289, attention and calculation score was 4.738+ 0.5000, recall score was 2.8+0.352, language score was 8.5 +0.538. Conclusion: The study concluded that patients on hemodialysis have cognitive impairment and there is no relation of cognitive impairment with duration and frequency of hemodialysis, age , gender, level of education of patients. P value was insignificant.</p> Jibran Bin Aziz Behzad Kaleem Baloch Luqman Saeed| Nayab Memon, Abdullah Nofal Zahid Ahmed Ahmad Humbal Copyright (c) 2024 Health Sciences Journal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 1 30 36 10.59365/hsj.2(1).2023.69